Part I History of Ethics
Life of Socrates
Part II Concepts and Problems
Normative Ethics and Applied Ethics
Part III Applied Ethics
Field of Applied Ethics
History of an Error
This selection from the Twilight of the Idols contains 6 stages outlining the "History of an Error." The first four are a de-valuation of an Ideal; the last two are Nietzsche's re-valuation of an Ideal. It is Nietzsche's historical deconstruction of the God-Idea. The original text is followed by a brief analysis.
Outline of an Analysis
Dualism of Being ("true world") and Becoming ("this world"). The "highest level" is attainable through wisdom.
Dualism of Heaven (true world/the other-after-better-life) and Earth (this world/life). The "highest level" is attainable at death.
The Critiques establish the nature of the "true world" as beyond human knowledge (reason), though it might serve as an ideal, a goal (it would be 'useful' in the moral sense).
Knowledge of this world suffices. The "real" is the empirical -- Comte's emphasis on the 'positive' (natural) sciences.
5. Nietzsche's negative critique
The "true world" is a USELESS idea -- this is N.'s 'nein-sagen,' his critique of God (cf. The Madman).
6. Nietzsche's positive assertion
Nietzsche's 'ja-sagan,' a RE-VALUATION OF ALL VALUES: a new determination, a new comportmant toward existence -- embodied in the image of Zarathustra (cf. The Greatest Stress).