Part I History of Ethics
Life of Socrates
Part II Concepts and Problems
Normative Ethics and Applied Ethics
Part III Applied Ethics
Field of Applied Ethics
Modern Moral PhilosophyBroadly speaking, the Medieval Mind gradually gave way to the Modern Period through a series of cultural and political changes that involved both the Renaissance (c 14th-16th centuries) and the Reformation (marked by the 1517 posting of Luther's '95 Theses'). The former involved the expansion of trade and the rise of money-based economies, the invention of printing, Copernicus' challenge to Ptolemaic astronomy, and Galileo's confrontation with Aristotelian 'physics.' The New Sciences, with their empirical methods and mathematical tools, set about to provide a new grid by which to measure the universe. The Protestant Reformation, begun with an attack against 'indulgences' and a belief in power of simple faith, ended in schism and political dissent from the once 'universal' (catholos) Church.
In this historical context, Thomas Hobbes' political and moral writings represent the first truly 'modern' view of ethics.